Non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, like functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), record the brain activity of a subject during a mental task. The challenge is to infer the actual mental task from the corresponding brain recordings.
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A sequence of stimuli induces a mental state in a subject. The concurrent brain activity is recorded. The challenge is to identify the regions of the brain involved in that mental process.
Structural connectivity refers to anatomical links between different regions of the brain. Diffusion MRI measures the average directionality of neuronal axons and provides information to reconstruct the structural connectivity. The challenge is to automatically segment connectivity structures of anatomical interest.